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Field and Laboratory Techniques in Ecology and Natural History

This Field Techniques Manual Is Recommended for High School and College Teachers.
Free Data Spreadsheets (ZIP) to Accompany the Book

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Asiatic Shore Crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineous) Field Studies

Research techniques for Teachers, and Students in the Area of Invasive Species
Free Data Spreadsheet to Accompany the Book

Asiatic Shore Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineous Field Studies

What is statistical Field Techniques?

"Stats" have been used for years to help scientist evaluate the accuracy of their data, choose between different numbers, improve the certainty that the data is right, learn more about probabilities and much more, butů Stats have also been used to make scientist appear right, when they were not! So, working with "stats" is something that has to be done carefully. You do not want people to say that you misused "stats" to prove your point!

Scientists today do not work out of a hypothesis. They usually design an experiment, with the intentions of learning more about something. Then they try to explain their results by using natural logic and their collected data. It is true that scientist have hypothesis but usually they work on a subject and to learn more they execute an experiment.

First Stat using Excel

The World of Statistics 2

In Statistics Book # 2 I will compare two populations of Japanese Crabs (Hemigrapsus sanguineous), the first population of crabs comes from Hammonasset Beach State Park, and the second one is made up of all the crabs found in Connecticut by all the teams that work on the project. (Sites included Calf Park in Stamford, Sherwood Island in Westport, and New Haven Harbor plus Hammonasset Beach State Park in Madison) These are the numbers of males and females found in ¼ square meter at low tide in an area no more than 25 feet from the water line.

Second Stat using Excel

Field and Laboratory Methods in Micropaleontology

Scientists have been able to collect large amounts of information about the past by looking at microfossil deposits found on the shore, lakes, ponds and bogs.

As time goes by, pollen and spores from plants and small microorganisms living in water deposit on the surface of sediments. These organic pieces found in the sediment accumulate with time and not only accumulate but change as the plant communities and the organisms in water change.

Looking at Microfossils

How Salty is your Water

The two most common salts found in drinking water are sodium chloride ( NaCl) and Potassium Chloride (KCl). These two salts are normally found in quantities between 0 and 200 part per million (ppm or Mg/l). The acceptable amount according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should not be greater than 200 ppm.

Although sanding the roads helps us to clear ice and snow, the salt and sand used is not really good for the environment. Sand increases sedimentation in streams and lakes and salt is a foreign product in fresh water, harmful to fish and other organisms. Increased doses of salt in drinking water could be also harmful to our health, so a careful monitoring of Sodium Chloride in drinking water is a good idea.

Testing for Sodium Chloride in drinking water

Distribution of Freshwater Amphipods in Connecticut

One hundred and forty three collections of freshwater amphipods located in the Biodiversity Research Collections, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT were completed since 1959. Forty three collections were done by several researchers and professors and one hundred additional collections were done by me since 1988. All major drainage basins were investigated except for the Southwest Coast and the Hudson Rivers Drainage basins. Eight amphipod species were found. No new amphipod species in New England are being reported. Paper reviews repopulation strategies after the last glacial event and geochemical conditions that may guide amphipod habitat preferences.

Distribution of Freshwater Amphipods in Connecticut

Freshwater Crustaceans (Malcostraca) in Connecticut

Including Some Notes Regarding Their Re-Population in Connecticut After the Ice Age. Distribution of the Freshwater Crustaceans in Connecticut with some information regarding their re-population in Connecticut after the last ice age. Publication includes maps.